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The Companions (Greek: ἑταῖροι, hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon and achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the best cavalry in the ancient world and the first shock cavalry. Chosen Companions/Hetairoi formed the elite guard of the king (Somatophylakes).

The Companions (Greek: ἑταῖροι, hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon and achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the best cavalry in the ancient world and the first shock cavalry. Chosen Companions/Hetairoi formed the elite guard of the king (Somatophylakes).

Late Hellenistic period hoplites and cavalryman (extreme right). The armies of Carthage followed the Hellenistic fashion quite closely due to their constant exposure to Greek culture. It would have been men uniformed in this way that battled the Roman republic during the Punic wars.

Late Hellenistic period hoplites and cavalryman (extreme right). The armies of Carthage followed the Hellenistic fashion quite closely due to their constant exposure to Greek culture. It would have been men uniformed in this way that battled the Roman republic during the Punic wars.

Falange Macedônica. Formação de infantaria criada por Felipe e usada por…

Falange Macedônica. Formação de infantaria criada por Felipe e usada por…

The Spartan tactical structure, according to Xenophon was the enōmotia, with 36 men in three files of twelve under an enōmotarches. Two enōmotiai formed a pentēkostys of 72 men under a pentēkontēr, and two pentēkostyai were grouped into a lochos of 144 men under a lochagos. Four lochoi formed a mora of 576 men under a polemarchos, the largest single tactical unit of the Spartan army.

The Spartan tactical structure, according to Xenophon was the enōmotia, with 36 men in three files of twelve under an enōmotarches. Two enōmotiai formed a pentēkostys of 72 men under a pentēkontēr, and two pentēkostyai were grouped into a lochos of 144 men under a lochagos. Four lochoi formed a mora of 576 men under a polemarchos, the largest single tactical unit of the Spartan army.

Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC. The Spartans attack from the sea - art by Peter Dennis

Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC. The Spartans attack from the sea - art by Peter Dennis

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